Safety engineering can be defined as the application of scientific and engineering principles to the effects of fire by quantifying the risks and hazards involved and by providing an optimal solution for the application of preventive or protective measures, including loss of life and property damage can be reduced.
The concepts of fire safety engineering can be applied to any situation where the fire is a potential hazard. Although this text primarily deals with building structures, the same principles apply equally to problems involving oil or gas installations or other structures such as highway bridges. Additional hazards from gas and oil installations are primarily due to the more rapid growth of fires and the associated faster rates of temperature rise. This has been identified by considering testing of the material response under heating regimes other than those associated with more traditional cellulosic fires. However, the design methods used are similar to the situation covered by more common cellulose-based fires.
As with any non-building structure, there may be a risk of fire damage, but the fact that this risk is exceptionally low means that such a contingency can ordinarily be overlooked.
DESIGN CONCERNS FOR FIRE SAFETY
Within the discipline of fire safety engineering, there are easily identifiable elements that are related to both life and property safety. These areas are not mutually exclusive because actions that increase life safety can also increase asset protection. The key areas can be specified as follows
Control Of Ignition
This can be done by controlling the flammability of materials within the structure, by the maintenance of the structural fabric and finishes, or by fire safety management in, say, imposing a ban on smoking or naked flames.
Control of means of escape
This can be forced either by the imposition of statutory requirements on the provision of suitable escape facilities or by the education of occupants.
This involves establishing the methods by which a fire can be detected, preferably at the earliest possible stage.
Control of the spread of fire
Here, the concern is the spread of the fire within the building or to nearby properties. This control can be effected either by in-built features (such as compartmentalization) or by control of the distance between buildings or by mechanical means (such as venting, smoke screens or sprinklers).
Prevention of Structure Collapse
It covers imposing load-bearing capacity and integrity on the structure in whole or in part during a fire.
FIRE SAFETY IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS
Fire safety in tall buildings is critically important. Fire claims a huge loss of life and property in the high-rise building each year.
This article has been produced for people who live in high-rise buildings and tell you what to do if a fire breaks out. Read it carefully and implement the fire prevention techniques.
Every high-rise building has been designed and built with safety in mind. The walls, the doors between flats stairs, and corridors are specially designed to resist fire check smoke to smoke extent. As per the National building code, high-rise buildings should have a Smoke detector, Sprinklers, first-aid, Fire fighting system, PA system, adequate water supply, fire pumps, fire escape routes, Fireman lift refuses area etc.
Outside the high rise buildings, adequate access roads and surrounding areas are designed so that the emergency vehicle can get as near as possible.
ADVANCE PLANNING FOR FIRE SAFETY
Consult your building management and fire department in advance and learn what you are expected to do.
- If you discover a fire, sound the alert and call the fire Brigade. If you hear instructions about your building's public address system, listen carefully and do as you are told. We can say stay where you are.
- Follow your evacuation plan until you see smoke or other signs of fire.
BE PREPARED TO DEAL WITH FIRE AT ALL TIMES
- Know where to find building's alarms and learn how to use them.
- Learn the sound of your building's fire alarms.
- Make sure everyone in your home knows where to go if the fire alarm goes off and work out your escape plan together. Your building management should display evacuation plans prominently where everyone can see them. Some evacuation plans may have you go to a "SAFE AREA" inside the building and wait for firemen to supervise your escape.
- Know a minimum of two escape routes from every room in your apartment.
- Count the doors b/w your living unit and to the nearest building exit. You may have to escape the fire in the night where there is no light.
- In some rising fires, the safe thing to do is protect from the fire and stay until the fire department comes.
DOES DOESN'T FOR FIRE SAFETY
Does for Fire Safety
- Fire order should be implemented in the Building with the role and responsibilities of all occupants.
- Good housekeeping.
- Use ashtrays when smoking and store smoked butts in them after extinguishing.
- All containers for waste should be drained at regular intervals.
- Faulty electrical appliances should be replied to and replaced immediately.
- Correct rated wire and electrical appliances etc. should be used.
- Electrical safety such as MB, GCD, Switches, and fuses should confirm the correct rating circuit.
- Welding and other fire jobs should be carried out under strict supervision.
- Keep smoke/Fire check doors closed
- Keep means of escape clear of obstructions.
- Emergency origination should be set up.
Doesn't during a fire
- Don't dispose of lighted cigarettes carelessly.
- Don't plug too many electrical appliances into one socket.
- Don't store L.P.G against Gas cylinders government rules.
- Don't apply any paint on the fire Detector/Sprinklers Heads.
- Don't engage an unqualified contractor for the servicing of the Fire Fighting system.
- Don't Think that fire safety is someone else's job.
- Don't relax after hearing a fire/emergency call.
INSTRUCTION FOR SURVIVAL DURING A FIRE
- Keep calm, don't panic and don't run.
- Raise the alarm and alert everyone on your premises.
- Run first and then call for help.
- Use the nearest available exit routes.
- When leaving the premises, if possible close all doors and windows behind you but ensure that no one is left behind and you stay safe.
- Use the stairs. "Don't use the elevator".
- If you are trapped in a smoke-filled area, lie down, keep your nose close to the floor, and crawl to the exit point.