Good Building Stone | Famous Stone Building | Stone Types | Stone Available In India

good building stone | famous stone buildings | stone Types


Stone is a ‘naturally available construction material’ which has been used from the early age of civilization. It is present in the form of rocks, which are cut to the necessary size and shape and used as building components. It has been used to construct small residential buildings and enormous palaces and temples all over the world. Red Fort, Taj Mahal, Vidhan Sabha at Bangalore and some other significant palaces of the mediaeval period all over India are famous stone buildings.

FAMOUS STONE USED BUILDINGS IN THE WORLD

1. The Great Pyramid of Giza

  • The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest stone structure.
  • KING DJOSER (c. 2670 BCE) was the first king of the Dynasty of Egypt and the first king who built the stone structure.

2. Church of San Giovanni Battista, Mogno

  • The Church of San Giovanni Battista is located in the alpine village of Mogno in the Swiss canton of Ticino.
  • Built between 1994 and 1996
  • Address: 6696 Mogno, Switzerland

3. Church of Saint George, Lalibela

  • Originally named Roha
  • The site was named Lalibela after the King Gebre Mesqel Lalibela of the Zagwe dynasty, who commissioned its construction.

4. Split Rock Lighthouse

  • Split Rock Lighthouse is a lighthouse located southwest of Silver Bay, Minnesota, the USA on the North Shore of Lake Superior.
  • Height: 54 feet (16 m) tower on a 130 feet (40 m)
  • Number of visitors nearly: 1,60,000 per year

5. Dome of the Rock

  • The Dome of the Rock is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem.
  • Architects: Raja ibn Haywa, Yazid Ibn Salam
  • Height: 35 m
  • Opened: 1023

6. CBS Building

  • The CBS Building, also known as Black Rock
  • Headquarters of the CBS broadcasting network at 51 West 52nd Street in the Midtown Manhattan neighbourhood of New York City.
  • Architects: Eero Saarinen, Eliel Saarinen
  • Height: 150 m
  • Construction started for Building: 1961
  • Opened: 1965
  • Total Number of Floors: 38

7. Kailasa Temple

  • The Kailasha or Kailashanatha temple is the enormous of the rock-cut Hindu temples at the Ellora Caves
  • Aurangabad District, Maharashtra, India
  • The caves are a UNESCO World Heritage Site

8. Taj Mahal

  • The Taj Mahals an ivory-white marble structure
  • On the bank of the River Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra
  • It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan

9. Sabrimala Temple

  • The middle temple site of Sabarimala, there once lived most effective a small granite temple surrounded by thick evergreen forests.
  • Further development is in progress.
  • Location: Kerala,India

TYPE OF STONES USED IN CONSTRUCTION

Stones used for civil engineering works can be classified in the following three methods:

1. Geological

2. Physical

3. Chemical

GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROCK

Based on their source of formation Building stones are classified into three primary groups—

(i) Igneous,  (ii) Sedimentary and (iii) Metamorphic rocks

(i) Igneous Rocks:

These rocks are formed by cooling and solidifying the rock masses from their molten magmatic situation of the material of the earth.

Generally, igneous rocks are strong and long-lasting. Granite, trap and basalt are the example rocks belonging to this category, Granites are formed by gradual cooling of the lava under the thick layer on the top. Consequently, they have got crystalline surfaces. The cooling of lava at the top surface of the earth results in a non-crystalline and transparent texture.

Trap and basalt fall under this category.

 (ii) Sedimentary Rocks:

Because of weathering motion of water, wind and frost existing rocks hills disintegrate. The disintegrated material is dragged by wind and water medium; the water is the most powerful medium. Flowing water acquired its suspended materials at some points of barriers to its flow. These deposited layers of materials get hardened under pressure and by heat (warmth). Chemical agents additionally make a contribution to the cementing of the deposits layers. The rocks thus created are more uniform, fine-grained and consolidated in their nature. In general, they describe a bedded or stratified structure.

Sandstones, limestones, mudstones etc. belong to this category of rocks.

(iii) Metamorphic Rocks:

Previously formed igneous and sedimentary rocks undergo changes because of the metamorphic action of pressure and inner warmness. For example, due to metamorphic action granite becomes gneisses, trap and basalt changes to schist and laterite, limestone becomes marble, sandstone change into quartzite and mudstone becomes slate.

PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROCK

Based on the structure, the rocks may be categorized as:

(I) Stratified Rocks         (Ii) Unstratified Rocks

(i) Stratified Rocks:

They contain planes of stratification or cleavage. These rocks have a layered structure. They can be easily separated along these definite planes. Sandstones, limestones, slate etc. are examples of these stones.

(ii) Unstratified Rocks:

They contain crystalline and compact grains. These rocks are not stratified. They cannot be split into thin layer slabs. Granite, trap, marble etc. are examples of this type of Building rock.

(iii) Foliated Rocks:

These rocks have a proclivity to break along a definite direction only. The direction no longer wants to be parallel to every other as in the case of stratified rocks. This type of structure is very typical in the case of metamorphic rocks.

CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROCK 

On the grounds of their chemical compositor engineers prefer to classify rocks as:

(i) Silicious rocks

(ii) Argillaceous rocks and        

(iii) Calcareous rocks

(i) Silicious rocks:

The primary content of these rocks is silica. They are tough and durable. Examples of these rocks are granite, trap, sandstones etc.

(ii) Argillaceous rocks:

The principal constituent of these rocks is clay. These stones are hard and long-lasting but they are breakable. They cannot resist heavy shock. Slates and laterites belong to this type of rock.

(iii) Calcareous rocks:

The principal component of these rocks is calcium carbonate. Limestone is a calcareous rock of sedimentary source while marble is a calcareous rock of metamorphic origin.

COMMON BUILDING STONE FOUND IN DIFFERENT INDIAN STATES

The following are the some of generally used building stones:

(i) Basalt and trap

(ii) Granite

(iii) Sandstone

(iv) Slate

(v) Laterite

(vi) Marble

(vii) Gneiss

(viii) Quartzite

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